قواعد اللغة الانجليزية للسنة الثالثة ثانوي
10-08-2016

Summary of English language lessons
By Yassine Forever
Condition
You can take my car providing that you don’t damage it.
(Main clause) (Subordinate clause)
The meaning:
I will lend you my car on condition that you don't damage it.
Verb in Future + 𝑝𝑟𝑜𝑣𝑖𝑑𝑖𝑛𝑔 𝑡𝑕𝑎𝑡𝑝𝑟𝑜𝑣𝑖𝑑𝑒𝑑 𝑡𝑕𝑎𝑡𝑎𝑠 𝑙𝑜𝑛𝑔 𝑎𝑠𝑠𝑜 𝑙𝑜𝑛𝑔 𝑎𝑠𝑏𝑢𝑡 𝑜𝑛𝑙𝑦 𝑖𝑓𝑜𝑛𝑙𝑦 𝑖𝑓+ verb in present simple
Wishes
Present wish: (wish, past simple)
Example: I wish I spoke Italian. (I don't speak Italian.)
Present wish expresses an imaginary situation impossible to happen.
If only = wish
Past wish: (wish, past perfect)
Example: I wish I hadn’t eaten so much. (I ate a lot.)
Past wish expresses a regret about a situation happened in the past.
Future wish: (wish, would + stem (a verb without “to”))
Example: I wish I would stop smoking.
Can = could
(You are smoking at the moment and it is annoying me.)
Future wish expresses impatience, annoyance or dissatisfaction with a present action.
Wish = 𝐼𝑓 𝑜𝑛𝑙𝑦𝐼𝑡′𝑠 𝑡𝑖𝑚𝑒𝐼𝑡′𝑠 𝑕𝑖𝑔𝑕𝑡𝑖𝑚𝑒𝐼𝑡′𝑠 𝑎𝑏𝑜𝑢𝑡 𝑡𝑖𝑚𝑒 + verb in past simple
Had better
Had better is used to express advice
Had better = should = ought to
Had better + stem (a verb without “to”)
Example: you had better work hard to pass your final exam.
Negative form:
Had better not +stem (a verb without “to”).
Example: you look tired, you had better not go to school today.

Result
Expressing results we use: 𝑠𝑜+𝑎𝑑𝑗+𝑡𝑕𝑎𝑡𝑠𝑢𝑐𝑕+𝑎 𝑛𝑜𝑢𝑛𝑝𝑕𝑟𝑎𝑠𝑒+𝑡𝑕𝑎𝑡
- Subject + verb + so + adjective + that + the rest of the sentence.
Example: copies of brand are so cheap that some consumers don’t hesitate to buy them.
- Subject + verb + such + a noun phrase + that + the rest of the sentence.
Example: It was such a good film that I watched it twice.
We can express results using other link word: 𝑎𝑠 𝑎 𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑢𝑙𝑡𝐶𝑜𝑛𝑠𝑒𝑞𝑢𝑒𝑛𝑡𝑙𝑦𝑎𝑠 𝑎 𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑠𝑒𝑞𝑢𝑒𝑛𝑐𝑒𝑠𝑜𝑡𝑕𝑢𝑠𝑡𝑕𝑒𝑟𝑒𝑓𝑜𝑟𝑒
Cause
Expressing causes: we use:
- Sentence + 𝑏𝑒𝑐𝑎𝑢𝑠𝑒𝑠𝑖𝑛𝑐𝑒𝑎𝑠 + subject + verb …
Example: - He succeeded in his exam because he had worked hard.
- The audience cheered as it was a good play.
- Sentence + 𝑏𝑒𝑐𝑎𝑢𝑠𝑒 𝑜𝑓𝑑𝑢𝑒 𝑡𝑜𝑓𝑜𝑟𝑜𝑤𝑖𝑛𝑔 𝑡𝑜 + noun phrase.
Example: - She succeeded in his exam because of her work hard.
- I had to ask for help because of the difficult of the q